Data Records 2020
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Water

GROUND WATER SOURCES GENERAL REMARKS

The water that is percolated in the ground is known as groundwater.  It is brought on the surface for use. The following points need to be taken into account regarding underground sources: a) AQUIFERS The surface of each aquifers is composed of alternate pervious and impervious layers. Pervious strata are those strata through which water can easily pass while impervious strata are those …

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SURFACE WATER RESOURCES AND THEIR WATER QUALITY

SURFACE SOURCES Surface water resources includes three types of sources 1) Lakes and Streams 2) Rivers 3) Storage Reservoirs 1) LAKES AND STREAMS A natural lake is a large water body in the land. A lake is used to supply water to its nearest areas. The runoff of water that goes in the lake should be measured correctly and it …

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VIRTUAL WATER

Virtual Water is the water embodied in a product not in real sense but in virtual sense. The water required to produce a product is known as virtual water. It is also known as embedded water or exogenous water. Exogenous water is the water that the countries import in virtual sense and it is exogenous to the importing countries. In …

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CONSIDERATIONS FOR SUCCESSFUL PROGRAMS

Establishment of new populations is quite difficult and expensive and it requires long term and serious commitments. The programs to capture, raise and monitor the species such as condor, peregrine falcon, ferrets millions of dollars are required and millions of year work is needed. When species are long lived they required that much time to take care of the program. Emotional …

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BEHAVIORS OF RELEASED ANIMALS WHILE INTRODUCTION AND REINTRODUCTION PROGRAMS

If we want to make reintroduction and introduction programs successful than behaviors of released animals should be addressed while releasing the animals in any habitat. Social Animals Learning: When social animals such as mammals and birds grow in wild, they learn about their environment from their members of community especially from their partners. They learn how to interact with other …

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ESTABLISHING NEW POPULATIONS TO CONSERVE ENDANGERED SPECIES

INTRODUCTION Many endangered species are at verge of extinction, many conservation biologists are developing strategies or approaches to save these species. These approaches involve increasing size of existing population and establishing new wild or semi wild populations of rare species. These approaches allow the species living in captivity or in small isolated populations. The populations that are widely spread are less destroyed …

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NATIONAL POLICY OF PAKISTAN 2005

POLICY VISION “The National Environmental Policy aims at improving the quality of life of Pakistan by conserving, protecting and improving the Pakistan’s environment and cooperation among the civil society, government agencies, private sectors and other stakeholders.” OBJECTIVES Maintain clean and healthy environment for the people of Pakistan. Achieve sustainable economic development by conserving and protecting the resources. Effective management of …

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WHAT IS CLEANER PRODUCTION?

INTRODUCTION Different approaches are used to deal with environmental degradation problems since over long time industrialization was started in different nations. The approaches such as to avoid the problem; to dilute the pollutants so that to reduce the impacts of pollutants; treat the pollution after it happens (end of pipe solution); prevent the pollution at source by cleaner production techniques were used. It …

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ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS

Environmental Ethics assume that moral norms govern the human behavior towards natural world. Many ethics regarding the environment were presented by environmentalists. These are as follows: UNIVERSALISTS  Plato and Kant presented this ethic. The concept describes that fundamental ethics are universal and  unchanging.  The rules of right and wrong are valid without concerning the interests, desires and attitude. God has created these rules …

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EVOLUTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL THINKING AND CURRENT ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

EVOLUTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL THINKING The impacts caused by human activities to environment were recognized globally known as environmental impacts. 1940s In 1948 IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) was made.  It acted as Inter governmental body. IUCN in current time has several civil socirty organizations as its members. 1950s DDT (Dichloro diphenyl trichloroethane) was detected in the flesh …

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